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Biology-Life Sciences

Standard D: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Standard A: Plasma Membranes
Standard B: Enzymes
Standard C: Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, and Viruses
Standard D: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Standard E : The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
Standard F: Chloroplasts
Standard G: Mitochondria
Standard H: Macromolecules
Standard J : The Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall
Standard I : ATP production
Exemplar Chart

Proteins go through many different processes to be fully developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA), which is located in the cytoplasm (clear fluid inside cell), travels to the DNA that is located inside the nucleus.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is like a code.  The mRNA enters the nucleus and copies the DNA's genetic code.   This process is called transcription.  Next, the combination of genetic code and RNA travel back through the cytoplasm to a ribosome. Ribosomes are the sites where a cell produces the proteins.  When a ribosome produces proteins, it is called translation.  A protein is a large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes sulfur. The basic building blocks for proteins are amino acids.  Amino acids are in various combinations that make thousands of different proteins.  Proteins make characteristics in your body. 

The Nucleus


DNA (deoxynucleic acid)


RNA (ribonucleic acid)


Ribosomes during protein synthesis