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Biology-Life Sciences

Standard E : The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
Standard A: Plasma Membranes
Standard B: Enzymes
Standard C: Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, and Viruses
Standard D: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Standard E : The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
Standard F: Chloroplasts
Standard G: Mitochondria
Standard H: Macromolecules
Standard J : The Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall
Standard I : ATP production
Exemplar Chart

The Endoplasmic Reticulum


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is located in the cytoplasm of a cell and is very important to the synthesis of proteins.  The endoplasmic reticulum can be divided into two parts: the rough ER and the smooth ER.  The smooth side is the inner part of the endoplasmic reticulum and it is not involved with ribosomes or proteins.  The smooth side transfers products made from the rough side.  The rough side is the outer surface closest to the cytoplasm.  Ribosomes are attached to this side and they carry out the process of protein synthesis here.  Each protein made from the ribosome in the endoplasmic reticulum has a certain function; some become a protein that helps form the plasma membrane, some are released from the cell, and some are transported to other organelles


Golgi Apparatus

The golgi apparatus is a flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies and changes proteins.  The golgi apparatus, also known as the golgi complex or golgi body, sorts all the proteins that is sent to it from the endoplasmic reticulum.  Then, they get packaged and packed into membrane-bound structures and sent off to their proper destination.  This process is similar to that of a post office, sending things to different destinations.