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Biology-Life Sciences

Standard F: Chloroplasts
Standard A: Plasma Membranes
Standard B: Enzymes
Standard C: Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, and Viruses
Standard D: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Standard E : The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
Standard F: Chloroplasts
Standard G: Mitochondria
Standard H: Macromolecules
Standard J : The Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall
Standard I : ATP production
Exemplar Chart



The making of proteins requires energy.  To get this energy, two organelles: mitochondria and chloroplasts are used. 

     Chloroplasts are organelles that take light energy and convert it into chemical energy. A chloroplast has a double membrane, the inner and outer membranes.  The inner thylakoid membrane traps the light energy.   Inside the inner membrane are stacks of grana, and surrounding the grana is a fluid known as stroma.  Chloroplasts, which are contained in chlorophyll, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which traps light energy and make leaves and stems green.  The chemical energy that is captured by the chloroplasts is stored in sugar molecules until they are broke down.



Photosynthesis is the process by which plants trap light energy from sunlight with chlorophyll and use this energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars.  The equation for photosynthesis is

                             6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

In other words, the process of photosynthesis simply takes light and converts it into glucose that can be later used as energy.

Chemiosmosis is the coupling of the movement of H+ ions to ATP production. 

The calvin cycle is a series of reactions during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis in which simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide using ATP and hydrogen from the light-dependent reactions.  It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplasts.