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Biology-Life Sciences

Standard H: Macromolecules
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Standard A: Plasma Membranes
Standard B: Enzymes
Standard C: Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, and Viruses
Standard D: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Standard E : The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
Standard F: Chloroplasts
Standard G: Mitochondria
Standard H: Macromolecules
Standard J : The Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall
Standard I : ATP production
Exemplar Chart
Bibliography

Macromolecules

Macromolecules are very large molecules that consist of many smaller units linked together.  Macromolecules, being naturally larger than normal molecules, are categorized as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. 

  • Polysaccharides are long chains of repeating sugar units.  The precursor* of polysaccharides is sugar. 
  • Nucleic Acids are compounds that contain phosphorous, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (i.e. RNA and DNA).  The precursor of nucleic acids is nucleotides.
  • Proteins are organic compounds that consist of one or more chains of amino acids.  Therefore, the precursor of proteins is amino acids.
  • Lipids are organic compounds other than carbohydrates consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; fats, oils or waxes.  The precursor of lipids is hydrocarbons.
*Precursor-subunit (building block); tags good sections of DNA is located
*polymer-a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

Fats(such as butter), steriods, oils and waxes are all classified as lipids

butter.jpg

Polysaccharide

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