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Biology-Life Sciences

Standard I : ATP production
Standard A: Plasma Membranes
Standard B: Enzymes
Standard C: Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, and Viruses
Standard D: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Standard E : The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
Standard F: Chloroplasts
Standard G: Mitochondria
Standard H: Macromolecules
Standard J : The Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall
Standard I : ATP production
Exemplar Chart




ATP(adenosine triphosphate) is an energy-storing molecule in cells composed of an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups.  The energy that the mitochondria and chloroplasts make are stored in the chemical bonds of the ATP and can be used quickly and easily by molecules.  During cellular respiration, the energy released from the breakdown of food molecules is stored in the form of ATP.  Sugar glucose is the most common food substance that cells take energy from.   

Storing Energy


Chemiosmotic gradients (different amounts of given substances in given areas) help store the ATP produced by the mitochondria and chloroplasts.  In mitochondria, the electron transport chain has a very important role in storing energy.  The hydrogen ions that get released from the chain and into the intermembrane space are moved down into the mitochondrial matrix through the ATP Synthase Complex.   

ATP Synthase Complex